Democracy  &  Nature

The International journal of Inclusive Democracy

Vol. 6, No. 3 (November  2000)


Protest and decision-making in a society of blame



Abstract: The modern “globalized” society takes for granted that future and development can be planned and controlled. Economical and political decision-making processes propose goals and intentions; protest movements show how this can be dangerous, but don’t have realistic alternatives. Adopting the instruments of systems theory the paper focuses on two topics that are the very social condition of modernity and globalization. First: decision-making can only affect variables on the level of formal organizations, but not on the level of society as a whole. Second: the results of planning are never those expected by the decision-makers. Society is a result of evolution, not of (good or bad) intentions. Protest in the society against the society is then the reaction of society to itself, once that which is possible to do is a consequence (positive or negative) of a future without shape and the only available resource is uncertainty.